Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

International Business

print and electronic resources for international business research

Introduction to APA - a short tutorial

Some Basic Information for Citing Your Sources

Business researchers most often use the American Psychological Association (APA) citation style. Check with your instructor. 

Some basic guidelines:

  • Attribution - it's okay to use someone else's work, but credit them for it. Even when you don't use a direct quote or paraphrase another's work, if you derive some useful ideas or learn something from your reading, acknowledge that by including a citation in your Works Cited or References list.

  • Paraphrase - when you discuss someone's work or ideas in your own words.  Yes, you need to cite the work.

  • Direct quotation - using an author's exact words in your paper.

    • Use opening and closing quotation marks ("")
    • ​​A quote of less than 40 words is inserted directly into the text
    • A quote of more than 40 words 
      • Indent the quote one-half inch
      • ​​​Do not use quotation marks
      • Double space
      • ​​Exclude extra spacing between the quote and the rest of the text

Works Cited or Reference List - APA Style

  • List of citations at the end of your paper/report are:         
    • Alphabetized by the author’s last name or by the article/book title if there is no author (disregard a, an, the).
    • The title References is typed in boldface and centered at the top of the page. 
    • APA-style references are typed double-spaced using a hanging indent (the first line of the citation is aligned with the left margin; (subsequent lines are indented one-half inch).
    • Capitalize proper nouns

Example References page

Online Resources

Electronic Style Guides

Below are additional sources for citation information, some of which will actually generate citations based on the information you input. Please note:  if you enter incorrect information, the generated citation will be incorrect.

Online citation generators- enter whatever information you have (title, author, journal) to generate a full citation. Download or copy/paste it.  These sites will also generate in-text citations.  

Citation Examples - APA Style

Journal article
Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Year). Article title: And subtitle. Journal TitleVolume(Issue), page range. Retrieved from URL of journal homepage/database

One Author
in-text citation: (Roulac, 1996)

Roulac, S. E. (1996). The strategic real estate framework: Processes, linkages, decisions. The Journal of Real Estate

Research, 12(3), 323-346. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fgcu.edu/login?

url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/200306860?accountid=10919
 

Two Authors 
in-text citation: (Deacle & Elyasiani, 2014)
Deacle, S., & Elyasiani, E. (2014). Real estate investment by bank holding companies and their risk and return:

Nonparametric and GARCH procedures. Applied Financial Economics, 24(13), 907. Retrieved from

http://ezproxy.fgcu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1534522302?accountid=10919

Webpage 
Author, A. A. (year). Title of document [Format]. Retrieved from
http://xxxxx


in-text citation: (U.S. Energy Information Administration)
Short-term energy outlook - U.S. energy information administration (EIA) Retrieved from http://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/

Book (print)
Author, A. A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.


in-text citation: (Webber, 2014)

Webber, J. (2014). Get rich slow: Your guide to producing income & building wealth with rental real

            estate. New York, US: Business Expert Press.

Book chapter
Author, A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

in-text citation:
(Stahl, 2003)

Stahl, B. C. (2003). Ethics Management Systems, Responsibility and Information Technology. Wieland, J. (Ed.), Standards

and audits for ethics management systems: The European perspective. (pp. 216-232). Berlin:New York:Springer.

Newspaper (online)
Author, A., & Author, B. (year, month day). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

in-text citation:
(By, 1998)

By, M. S. (1998, Sep 15). Financing small businesses: Market turmoil stunts financing for small businesses. Wall

Street  Journal. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fgcu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/398624407?

accountid=10919

Citations for Specific Databases

DemographicsNOW
DemographicsNOW. (year). Report title in italics for geographic location. Retrieved from database URL

in-text citation: (DemographicsNow, 2016)

DemographicsNOW. (2016). Demographic snapshot comparison for Fort Myers, FL. Retrieved

from http://ezproxy.fgcu.edu/login?url=http://infotrac.galegroup.com/itweb/gale15690?

db=DNOW

IBISWorld report
Author, A. (year). Report title in italics. Retrieved from IBISWorld database URL

in-text citation: (Rivera, 2016)

Rivera, E. (2016). Real estate loans & collateralized debt in the US. IBISWorld industry report

52229. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.fgcu.edu/login?url=http://clients1.ibisworld.com/

 

Mergent Online - 
Company profile
Author, A. (year). 
Company name [Company profile]. Retrieved date from database URL
in-text citation: (Mergent company profile, n.d.)

Mergent (n.d.). Tesla, Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved July 1, 2020,
          f
rom https://www-mergentonline-com.ezproxy.fgcu.edu/comanydetail.php?compnumber=129614&pagetype=synopsis

Mintel Reports
Author, A. (year). Report title in italics. Retrieved from Mintel Reports database URL

in-text citation: (Roberts, 2016)

Roberts, W. (2016). Baby food & drink/feeding babies & toddlers - U.S.- August 2016. Retrieved from 

http://ezproxy.fgcu.edu/login?url=http://academic.mintel.com/

 

Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage Company Profile:

Author, A.  (publication date). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved (retrieval date) from database URL

in-text citation: (S&P NetAdvantage, n.d.)

Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. (n.d.). The Home Depot [Company profile]. Retrieved January 18, 2019 from https://www.capitaliq.com/CIQDotNet/company.aspx?companyId=278679

 

NOTE: n.d. in a citation simply means that the work/document is undated and that's okay.

Get More Help - FGCU Writing Lab

The FGCU Writing Lab (located in Library West 202C) offers free individual sessions for students needing assistance with writing assignments.  Walk-ins are welcome, but 30-minutes appointments can also be scheduled in advance. For current hours or to make an appointment, call (239) 590-7141 or check the website.