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Business Analytics - QMB 3302

Some Basic Information for Citing

Business researchers most often u se the American Psychological Association (APA) citation, but be sure to check with your instructor. 

Some basic guidelines:

  • Attribution - it's okay to use someone else's work as long as you give them credit for it in your assignment. Even if you don't use a direct quote or even paraphrase content from another's work, if you derive some useful ideas, learn something from your reading, it's a good idea to acknowledge that in your Works Cited or References list.

  • Paraphrase - when you discuss someone's work or ideas in your own words.  Yes, you need to cite the work.

  • Direct quotation - using an author's exact words in your paper.

    • Use opening and closing quotation marks ("")

    • A quote of less than 40 words is inserted directly into the text

    • A quote of more than 40 words 

      • Indent the quote one-half inch

      • Do not use quotation marks

      • Double space

      • Do not include extra spacing between the quote and the rest of the text

Online Resources

Electronic Style Guides

Below are additional sites for citation information, some of which will actually generate citations based on the information you input. Please note:  if you enter incorrect information, the generated citation will be incorrect.

Online citation generators- if you have part of the citation (Title, author, journal) in the search box.  Check the results list for you  specific citation. Download or copy/paste it.  These sites will also generate an in-text citation.  

Works Cited or Reference List - APA Style

  • List of citations at the end of your paper/report are:         
    • Alphabetized by the author’s last name or by the article/book title if there is no author (disregard a, an, the).
    • The title References is typed in boldface and centered at the top of the page. 
    • APA-style references are typed double-spaced using a hanging indent (the first line of the citation is aligned with the left margin; (subsequent lines are indented one-half inch).
    • Capitalize proper nouns

Example References page

Citation Examples - APA Style

Journal article
Author, A., Author, B., & Author, C. (Year). Article title: And subtitle. Journal TitleVolume(Issue), page range. Retrieved from URL of journal homepage/database

One Author
in-text citation: (Roulac, 1996)

Roulac, S. E. (1996). The strategic real estate framework: Processes, linkages, decisions. The Journal of Real Estate

Research, 12(3), 323-346. Retrieved from


Two Authors 
in-text citation: (Deacle & Elyasiani, 2014)
Deacle, S., & Elyasiani, E. (2014). Real estate investment by bank holding companies and their risk and return:

Nonparametric and GARCH procedures. Applied Financial Economics, 24(13), 907. Retrieved from

Author, A. A. (year). Title of document [Format]. Retrieved from

in-text citation: (U.S. Energy Information Administration)
Short-term energy outlook - U.S. energy information administration (EIA) Retrieved from

Book (print)
Author, A. A. (year). Title of book. Location: Publisher.

in-text citation: (Webber, 2014)

Webber, J. (2014). Get rich slow: Your guide to producing income & building wealth with rental real

            estate. New York, US: Business Expert Press.

Book chapter
Author, A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

in-text citation:
(Stahl, 2003)

Stahl, B. C. (2003). Ethics Management Systems, Responsibility and Information Technology. Wieland, J. (Ed.), Standards

and audits for ethics management systems: The European perspective. (pp. 216-232). Berlin:New York:Springer.

Newspaper (online)
Author, A., & Author, B. (year, month day). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

in-text citation:
(By, 1998)

By, M. S. (1998, Sep 15). Financing small businesses: Market turmoil stunts financing for small businesses. Wall

Street  Journal. Retrieved from


Citations for Specific Databases

DemographicsNOW. (year). Report title in italics for geographic location. Retrieved from database URL

in-text citation: (DemographicsNow, 2016)

DemographicsNOW. (2016). Demographic snapshot comparison for Fort Myers, FL. Retrieved



IBISWorld report
Author, A. (year). Report title in italics. Retrieved from IBISWorld database URL

in-text citation: (Rivera, 2016)

Rivera, E. (2016). Real estate loans & collateralized debt in the US. IBISWorld industry report

52229. Retrieved from


Mergent Online - 
Company profile
Author, A. (year). 
Company name [Company profile]. Retrieved date from database URL
in-text citation: (Mergent company profile, n.d.)

Mergent (n.d.). Tesla, Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved July 1, 2020,

Mintel Reports
Author, A. (year). Report title in italics. Retrieved from Mintel Reports database URL

in-text citation: (Roberts, 2016)

Roberts, W. (2016). Baby food & drink/feeding babies & toddlers - U.S.- August 2016. Retrieved from


Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage Company Profile:

Author, A.  (publication date). Title of document [Company profile]. Retrieved (retrieval date) from database URL

in-text citation: (S&P NetAdvantage, n.d.)

Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage. (n.d.). The Home Depot [Company profile]. Retrieved January 18, 2019 from


NOTE: n.d. in a citation simply means that the work/document is undated and that's okay.

Get More Help - FGCU Writing Lab

The FGCU Writing Lab (located in Library West 202C) offers free individual sessions for students needing assistance with writing assignments.  Walk-ins are welcome, but 30-minutes appointments can also be scheduled in advance. For current hours or to make an appointment, call (239) 590-7141 or check the website.